Dictatorships in the Hispanic World: Transatlantic and Transnational Perspectives

Julia M. Riordan-Goncalves, Ph.D.
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What if the Hispanic World United as a Single Country? New Spanish Empire Alternate History

Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Peyton blake wolenbarger rated it it was amazing Sep 14, Mavis Vermillion marked it as to-read Dec 31, Janessa S marked it as to-read Oct 20, Vivian added it Jan 05, Austin marked it as to-read Oct 26, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the s and s.

Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies.

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Throughout the s and s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict. Argentina and Britain fought the Falklands War in Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in with the creation of Marxist guerrillas FARC-EP and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC. These leftist groups smuggle narcotics out of Colombia to fund their operations, while also using kidnapping, bombings, land mines and assassinations as weapons against both elected and non-elected citizens.

Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II , but since the s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now. International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.

Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil , [52] [ full citation needed ] Chile , Argentina and Uruguay. In the interwar period, nationalism grew stronger on the continent, influenced by countries like Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. A series of authoritarian rules broke out in South American countries with views bringing them closer to the Axis Powers , [54] like Vargas's Brazil. In the late 20th century, during the Cold War , many countries became military dictatorships under American tutelage in attempts to avoid the influence of the Soviet Union.

After the fall of the authoritarian regimes, these countries became democratic republics. During the first decade of the 21st century, South American governments have drifted to the political left, with leftist leaders being elected in Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Most South American countries are making increasing use of protectionist policies, helping local development.

All South American countries are presidential republics with the exceptions of Peru, which is a semi-presidential republic , and Suriname , a parliamentary republic.

Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence. Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community , thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.

South America has over million [1] inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 0.

There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests , the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans mainly Spaniards , Portuguese and Italians , Africans and indigenous peoples.

There is a high percentage of mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians , especially in Brazil. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by French, English and Dutch in smaller numbers. Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America, with approximately million speakers each. Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname ; English is the official language of Guyana , although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country, including Portuguese , Chinese , Hindustani and several native languages.

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If the demographic projections are correct, and if the disturbing trends that characterize so many Hispanics today continue into the mid-twenty-first century, when Hispanics will constitute a quarter of the entire population, it may well be impossible to change the course of history for such a huge sector of the citizenry. Torres-Saillant An advocacy forum for Latino empowerment. Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil. Earth 's primary regions. The most populous country in South America is Brazil with North America portal. It may seem ironic to many that one of the thorniest intellectual and social-policy challenges presented by the surging number of Hispanics on the U.

At least three South American indigenous languages Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani are recognized along with Spanish as national languages. Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese -speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Crypto-Jews or Marranos , conversos , and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America. Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent.

Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries. Part of Religions in South America : [59]. Genetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America. The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies. People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent , or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group, are more of a majority in Argentina, [65] and Uruguay [66] and more than half of the population of Chile Mestizos mixed European and Amerindian are the largest ethnic group in Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia [72] and Ecuador and the second group in Peru.

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South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans. In many places indigenous people still practice a traditional lifestyle based on subsistence agriculture or as hunter-gatherers. There are still some uncontacted tribes residing in the Amazon Rainforest.

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This book provides a transatlantic and interdisciplinary perspective of dictatorships in the Hispanic World, focusing on the common strategies used to represent. siverpvarara.gq: Dictatorships in the Hispanic World: Transatlantic and Transnational Perspectives (): Patricia Swier, Julia Riordan- Goncalves.

The most populous country in South America is Brazil with The second largest country is Colombia with a population of 48,, Argentina is the third most populous country with 43,, While Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and three of five in the Americas. Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil. Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within Brazil, Argentina is host to the second largest metropolitan area by population in South America: the Buenos Aires metropolitan region is above 13 million inhabitants.

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South America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. The top ten largest South American metropolitan areas by population as of , based on national census numbers from each country:. Since , the continent has experienced remarkable growth and diversification in most economic sectors. Most agricultural and livestock products are destined for the domestic market and local consumption. However, the export of agricultural products is essential for the balance of trade in most countries.

The main agrarian crops are export crops, such as soy and wheat. The production of staple foods such as vegetables, corn or beans is large, but focused on domestic consumption. Livestock raising for meat exports is important in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Colombia. In tropical regions the most important crops are coffee , cocoa and bananas , mainly in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador.

Traditionally, the countries producing sugar for export are Peru, Guyana and Suriname, and in Brazil, sugar cane is also used to make ethanol. On the coast of Peru, northeast and south of Brazil, cotton is grown. Fifty percent of the South American surface is covered by forests, but timber industries are small and directed to domestic markets.

In recent years, however, transnational companies have been settling in the Amazon to exploit noble timber destined for export. The Pacific coastal waters of South America are the most important for commercial fishing. The anchovy catch reaches thousands of tons, and tuna is also abundant Peru is a major exporter. The capture of crustaceans is remarkable, particularly in northeastern Brazil and Chile.

In the tourism sector, a series of negotiations began in to promote tourism and increase air connections within the region. Industries in South America began to take on the economies of the region from the s when the Great Depression in the United States and other countries of the world boosted industrial production in the continent. From that period the region left the agricultural side behind and began to achieve high rates of economic growth that remained until the early s when they slowed due to political instabilities, economic crises and neoliberal policies.

Since the end of the economic crisis in Brazil and Argentina that occurred in the period from to , which has led to economic recession , rising unemployment and falling population income, the industrial and service sectors have been recovering rapidly. All of South America after this period has been recovering and showing good signs of economic stability, with controlled inflation and exchange rates, continuous growth, a decrease in social inequality and unemployment—factors that favor industry.

The main industries are: electronics, textiles, food, automotive, metallurgy, aviation, naval, clothing, beverage, steel, tobacco, timber, chemical, among others. The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is larger than on most other continents. Tourism has increasingly become a significant source of income for many South American countries. Historical relics, architectural and natural wonders, a diverse range of foods and culture, vibrant and colorful cities, and stunning landscapes attract millions of tourists every year to South America.

South Americans are culturally influenced by their indigenous peoples, the historic connection with the Iberian Peninsula and Africa, and waves of immigrants from around the globe. South American nations have a rich variety of music. People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo mixed of South American rhythms such as the Marinera from Lima , the Tondero from Piura , the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse, the soulful Arequipan Yaravi, and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania.

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In the late 20th century, Spanish rock emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock. Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres. Bahia , Brazil, is especially well known for its West African—influenced cuisine.

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The Paraguayan version, terere , differs from other forms of mate in that it is served cold. Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapes in Peru and Chile. The Colombian Fernando Botero is one of the greatest exponents of painting and sculpture that continues still active and has been able to develop a recognizable style of his own. A wide range of sports are played in the continent of South America, with football being the most popular overall, while baseball is the most popular in Venezuela.

Other sports include basketball , cycling , polo , volleyball , futsal , motorsports , rugby mostly in Argentina and Uruguay , handball , tennis , golf , field hockey , boxing and cricket. Argentina and Uruguay have two titles each. So far four South American nations have hosted the tournament including the first edition in Uruguay The other three were Brazil , , Chile , and Argentina The first edition was held in La Paz in and the most recent took place in Santiago in South American Cricket Championship is an international limited-overs cricket tournament played since featuring national teams from South America and certain other invited sides including teams from North America, currently played annually but until was usually played every two seasons.